Forecasting what will happen next at volcanoes, and particularly at restless volcanoes that are not yet erupting, is a difficult problem. Many volcano observatories have instruments to detect earthquakes, which is the most common tool for monitoring. Some may also have equipment that can measure heat and gases escaping from the volcano, and changes in volcano shape.
In STREVA we worked with volcano observatories to look again at what had happened during past changes in activity. We responded to new activity at a number of volcanoes, and analysed new datasets from instruments on satellites that measure volcano shape and volcanic gases. Understanding the global patterns of how and when volcanoes deform and erupt will help to improve forecasts for the onset of eruption. Detecting volcanic gas and ash in the atmosphere helps us to diagnose what is happening on the ground, and improve warnings for the wider consequences of an eruption.